摘要

Transcribed enhancer maps can reveal nuclear interactions underpinning each cell type and connect specific cell types to diseases. Using a 5' single-cell RNA sequencing approach, we defined transcription start sites of enhancer RNAs and other classes of coding and noncoding RNAs in human CD4+ T cells, revealing cellular heterogeneity and differentiation trajectories. Integration of these datasets with single-cell chromatin profiles showed that active enhancers with bidirectional RNA transcription are highly cell type-specific and that disease heritability is strongly enriched in these enhancers. The resulting cell type-resolved multimodal atlas of bidirectionally transcribed enhancers, which we linked with promoters using fine-scale chromatin contact maps, enabled us to systematically interpret genetic variants associated with a range of immune-mediated diseases.

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